Home > Khazra Introduction > About Fertilizers 

Phosphorus, Nitrogen, Sulfur, Magnesium, Calcium, Molybdenum, Boron, Copper, Zink, Manganese, Iron, Potassium,

Nano chelated fertilizersMetal chelate fetilizers,

What is Fetilizer?

It is any materials of inorganic compounds, organic or biological consisting of nutrient elements to increase soil fertility and agricultural production’s qualification and quantity in function.

Fertilizers are classified se following:

Organic fertilizers

They are derived from organic materials which are biodegradable by bacteria. It is not economical to add organic materials to supply nutrients for plants. They are notably inestimable due to the physical changes they make to the soil tissue. These fertilizers are divided into three groups:

1. Manure(animal feces)

2. Green manure: is a kind of plant which are grown before the main crop and plowed under and incorporated into the soil while green.

3. Compost: is a kind of fertilizer that has been decomposed and recycled from organic matters( left from plants and animal waste).

 

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Bio fertilizers

These are consisting of advantageous bacterial and fungal compounds surrounding the roots and help the plants to absorb nutrient elements. They are naturally originated and derived from the soil.

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Metal chelate fertilizers

What are chelates used for?

Using fertilizers having microelements generally play a significant role in growing plants particularly the soils which are lacking in the essential elements, hence various types of fertilizers have been commonly used since old times.

As soil is mostly alkaline so it cannot dissolve the important micronutrients, it is essentially needed to use the structures capable of solving this problem.

It has been a long time that different types of chelates are being used by farmers specially the leading ones. The chelates attempt to improve the micronutrients supply through varied structures.

These compounds are environmentally disadvantageous and cause ground and river water pollution as some kinds of them have been prohibited in the first world countries.

Consuming existing synthetic chelated fertilizers in spraying has not achieved good results and at best it has only increased the leaf chlorophyll containing, moreover none of these compounds are capable of being applied as soil drench or foliar spray simultaneously and EDTA chelate fertilizer can only be used as foliar spray and EDDHA chelate fertilizer in soils.

 The following chemical roots are the most important and commonly used agents applied in chelated fertilizers complexes in the world:

EDTA, EDDHA , DTPA, HEDTAT, CDTA, EDDHMA

EDDHA is the best among these structures that contains 70% of the common usage.

The important point is obtaining the structures able to solve the problems of current chelates (e.g. their hormonal structures, limited chelating ability, their limitation of being applied as either spray or in soil, percentage purity of the chelates)

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Nano-chelate fertilizers

According to the pioneering research, no method has been able to increase the effectiveness of agriculture products qualitatively and quantitatively at the same time yet. What seems mostly important is that acquiring the structures able to solve the problems of current chelates(e.g. their hormonal structures, limited chelating ability, their limitation of being applied as either spray or in soil, percentage purity of the chelates). Nano-chelate technology has been able to solve these problems notably. The improvement in the structures is due to the methods of applying and synthesizing the materials in production. Increasing the quantity has resulted in lower quality of agriculture products and vice versa. The superior application of nano-chelated fertilizers through the unique technology used in their synthesis has led to reach quality and quantity enhancement in agriculture products simultaneously.

Checking over Khazra nano chelated Ironfertilizer in Tehran University indicates that this fertilizer meets the functional and structural excellence to fluctuating in salt, acidity and temperature than the best synthetic Ironchelate existing in the world, EDDHA.

 

Microelements

 

The role of Iron

According to the pioneering research, no method has been able to increase the effectiveness of agriculture products qualitatively and quantitatively at the same time yet. What seems mostly important is that acquiring the structures able to solve the problems of current chelates(e.g. their hormonal structures, limited chelating ability, their limitation of being applied as either spray or in soil, percentage purity of the chelates). Nano-chelate technology has been able to solve these problems notably. The improvement in the structures is due to the methods of applying and synthesizing the materials in production. Increasing the quantity has resulted in lower quality of agriculture products and vice versa. The superior application of nano-chelated fertilizers through the unique technology used in their synthesis has led to reach quality and quantity enhancement in agriculture products simultaneously.

Checking over Khazra nano chelated Ironfertilizer in Tehran University indicates that this fertilizer meets the functional and structural excellence to fluctuating in salt, acidity and temperature than the best synthetic Ironchelate existing in the world, EDDHA.

The symptoms of Iron deficiency

  1. If a plant is not able to absorb Iron, it will turn yellow first in the margin between the veins and then the entire surface of leaf as it gets worse.
  2. The symptoms can be seen in young leaves and at the tips of stalks because Iron is not mobile.
  3. It must be noticed that not only does Iron deficiency cause yellow leaf but also insufficient Nitrogen, Sulfur, Magnesium and some other nutrient elements, some pests, diseases and low light

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The role of Manganese

Manganese plays an important role in a number of physiologic processes as a constituent of multiple enzymes and an activator of other enzymes like decarboxylase and dehydrogenases in Krebs cycle (TCA). It is present in soil as an exchangeable bivalent and insoluble ion. The most important role of manganese is in photosynthesis process and producing Oxygen for the plant to prevent the free radical activities and destroying fatty acids in cell membrane. Manganese is also effective in polysaccharides synthesis.Stalk lignification in plants depends on Manganese. It will enhance the plants resistance against diseases, all fungi and pests if there is sufficient manganese. Chloroplasts in plants are the most sensitive to Manganese deficiency.

The symptoms of Manganese deficiency

Leaves react to the limited application of manganese by a slight interveinal chlorosis. The symptoms may be confused with Iron deficiency in the early stages. It starts with small chlorosis first on the younger leaves and lattice-patterned veins on the older ones specially by being exposed to the light. As the stresses increase, leaves will turn to metallic bright grey and some dark spots and necrotic areas will appear along the veins. The leaf tips may also look reddish-purple.

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The role of Zinc

Zinc is essential for some enzymes activities such as alcohol dehydrogenase and carbonic anhydrase. There is a variable amount of this element in soils, although the ratio of absorbing Zinc and ionized Zinc is weak. Zinc deficiency plays an important role on RNA synthesis resulting in vegetative protein formation. It also has intense effects on plant’s normal metabolism. On the whole, carbohydrates, protein, Oxin metabolism and reproductive processes are strongly influenced by Zinc deficiency. The shortage of Zinc causes a 50-70 percent decrease in photosynthesis rate and chlorophyll content, chlorophyll abnormalities, a drop in the numbers of chloroplast in vascular sheath, growth of inorganic Phosphorus. It is effective in fruit bearing and preventing flowers and sprouts from dropping. Zinc deficiency results in decreasing protein synthesis and aggregating amino acids due to reduction in the transfer of amino acids.

The symptoms of Zinc deficiency

The leaf shows an advanced case of interveinal necrosis. In the early stages of Zinc deficiency the younger leaves become yellow and pitting develops in the interveinal upper surfaces of the mature leaves. As the deficiency progresses these symptoms develop into an intense interveinal necrosis but the main veins remain green, as in the symptoms of recovering Iron deficiency. Leaves in most of plants especially trees seem to have a decrease in leaf size, short internodes like rosette form.

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The role of Copper

Copper involves in the structure of three types of protein and activates of some enzymes. Copper ions are bound and absorbent only as complex and exchangeable to organic matter. In the case of Copper deficiency, the leaves would remain dwarf, the young shoots would undergo tip burnt and it cannot be taken up by the plants in alkaline soils. Hence, Copper efficiency is so low in alkaline soil. This element is essential for oxidase-catalase enzymes mechanisms, electron transport reactions and activator of several enzymes. Copper is immobile in plants so it remains sedimentary.

The symptoms of Copper deficiency

As below these Copper-deficient leaves are curled, and their petioles bend downward. Copper deficiency may be expressed as a light overall chlorosis along with the permanent loss of turgor pressure in the young leaves. Recently matured leaves show netted, green veining with areas bleached to a whitish gray. Some leaves develop sunken necrotic spots and have a tendency to bend downward.

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The role of Boron:

This element is essential to form the cells wall, transport sugars and starch, form terminal bud, form seed and pollen tube. Boron mobility is so low in plants in spite the fact that it is mobile in the soil. Therefore, its deficiency and toxicity is important. That is why the method of application plays an important role in its amount of consumption.

The symptoms of Bron deficiency

The leaves suffering from deficiency show general mild chlorosis. The range of deficiency and toxicity in Boron-sensitive plants is very narrow.

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The role of Molybdenum

It is possible that Molybdenum transport is done in xylems. Its mobility is rather low in plants that is why this element concentrates in protoxylems and parenchyma cells so the intensity is low in plant texture because of the little amount of absorbable Molybdenumin soil.

The symptoms of Molybdenum deficiency

A kind of spots with interveinal chlorosis may appear on the leaves. The initial symptom of molybdenum deficiency is a general overall chlorosis which is similar to Nitrogen deficiency symptoms but the difference is pale red color on the lower area of leaves in molybdenum deficiency. plant’s demand for Molybdenum is to nitrate reduction which occursin assimilation, so in fact, the first symptoms of molybdenum deficiency is caused by Nitrogen deficiency, however it has another metabolic role in plant and hence the symptoms would remain even if the reduced nitrate is available.

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The intermediate elements

The role of Calcium

Calcium element has an extensive role in plants. Stabilizing cell wall and cellular membrane and also cell expansion are among the duties of this element. Balancing cation and anion, activating some enzymes and adjusting osmotic pressure are other activities of this element. It plays a role in root increase and outspread and prevents damages related to frostbite and mechanical stresses such as wind. It is also essential for increasing fruit quality and staining, enhancing the product’s warehousing durationand reducing physiological diseases like blossom end rot. Calcium can result in reducing waste of bitter-pit.

The symptoms of Calcium deficiency:

The young leaves near the branch are deformed, wrinkled and the tip of them are rolled up and their margins are curled up or down. The margins are irregular and scattered. The roots growth are stunned. Brown or dead spots are observed on the roots. The deficiency is mostly visible in fruits and storage tissue of some vegetables such as tubers of potatoes as black spots and burnt like.

The symptoms of deficiency in fruits:

  • Suberization and softening of internal tissue
  • Water core development
  • Deformation or malformation of fruits

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The role of Magnesium:

Magnesium is the only mineralcomponent of chlorophyll molecule and can migrate in parts of plants easily. Probablyits most important duty, is the presence in chlorophyll molecule as a central ion. It takes part in activating enzymes and causes phosphate absorption and activating ATPase, phosphokinases, decarboxylases, dhydrazes etc. due to being electrophilic. It regulates the other nutrients specially Phosphorus and has effects on sugar matters production. It impacts on increasing the quality and protein synthesis in cereals.

Magnesium is involved in the synthesis of oil in the plants, and along with Sulfur it increases oil content in some oily plants, especiallyoil seeds such as canola, cotton, soybean and sunflower.

The symptoms of Magnesium deficiency

The products sensitive to Magnesium deficiency include citrus fruits, grapes, cotton, corn, potatoes, sugarcane, soybean, sun flower, canola, grains, vegetables and summer crops. These products showa positive response to the Khazra nano chelated Magnesium fertilizer.

There is an antagonistic relation(opposite balancing) between Magnesium with Potassium and Calcium, in a waythat the signs of Magnesium deficiency is indicated when having excessive Calcium and/or Potassium. The lower concentration of Magnesium causes moresevere deficiency. The deficiency of Magnesium in plants causes decrease in chlorophyll content and therefore plant growth is slowed down.

The common symptoms are yellowing between leaf veins, leaf shedding, photosynthesis decrease, appearing purple or red-brown spots (anthocyanins) between the veins and fruit becoming smaller.

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The role of sulfur

Sulfur plays an important role in amino acid and protein synthesis, chlorophyll synthesis, glutathione and coenzyme A formation, increasing the plant resistance to cold and drought, containing fungicidal property, preventing nitrate accumulation, producing sugar and starch.

The symptoms of Sulfur deficiency

The symptoms consist of growth decrease, young leaves becoming small and yellow, appearing purple color behind the leaves, stem thinning, cereals delayed growth, tuberization decrease in beans roots and therefore reducing Nitrogen fixation, fruits remaining greenand not ripening.

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Macroelements

The role of Nitrogen

Plant balanced growth is basedon this element. It plays an important role in the structure of biomolecules, all enzymes, chlorophyll, intermediate metabolic compounds, energy transporter compounds and even the structureof DNA and RNA.

The symptoms of Nitrogen deficiency

Nitrogen deficiency causesreducing plant growth, leaves becoming small and yellowish, weakness in the old leaves, early shedding leaves, reducing protein and amino acid rate, yellow , red and red-purple color appearing in late growth as a result of anthocyanins formation.

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The role of Phosphorus

Building plant cell structure, plant growth, producing and transferring energy, making nucleic acids, formationof flower and grain depend on this element.

The symptoms of Phosphorus deficiency

Stopping plant growth, shedding old leaves, increasing carbohydrate entrance to the roots, changing root morphology, slowing aerial part and root growth occur in the case of Phosphorus deficiency.

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The role of Potassium

Potassium element has a basicand imperative role in the activation of enzymes, hydrocarbons metabolism, protein making, photosynthesis, regulating osmotic pressure, enlargement of cells, cellular division and growth, opening and closing of stomata, transporting nutrition through phloem xylems and balancing of anions and cations.

Not only does Potassium cause increase in water consumptionefficiency, but also increases the plants’ resistance to environmental stresses such as frostbite, drought, salinity, pests and diseases.

It balances the effects of light intensity and causes increase in chlorophyll density and photosynthesis efficiency.

Potassium improves the fruits color which is one of the most important factors for determining the quality and market-friendliness of fruits, especially apple, peach and citrus fruits.

Plants that produce sugar and starch such as sugar beets, sugarcane and potatoes and also others like celery, tomatoes and alfalfa highly require Potassium. In addition, Potassium effects the quality of agricultural products especially on fleshy and tuber crop fruits such as tomatoes and potatoes.

It causes fruits to get larger, especially citrus fruits. It also increases warehousing periodand prevents Nitrate accumulation in vegetables and summer crops. The use of Potassium enhances the efficiency of Nitrogen fertilizers and leads to increase in the absorption of microelements such as Iron, Zinc and Manganese.

The symptoms of Potassium deficiency

Yellowing and burning the edge of leaves, decrease on resistance to drought, more sensitivity to salinity, vulnerability to cold and being attacked by fungal diseases, growth reduction,  shortening the internodes and remaining leaves small, internodes chlorosis and remaining veins green, fruits becoming kidney shaped and not ripening at the bottom are the main symptoms of Potassium deficiency.

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